“I think there will be more hostility between the communities as Bitcoin supporters will have another argument for not liking Ethereum and Ethereum supporters might start to question the energy consumption of bitcoin. I think the two communities are already pretty split, at least the maximalist communities,” said Marius van der Wijden. Stake slashings, ejections, and other penalties, coordinated by the beacon chain, will exist to prevent other acts of bad behavior.

  • Stablecoins are tokens on a blockchain that represent units of fiat currency, and most commonly, the U.S. dollar.
  • The beacon chain will also manage the validators from registering their stake deposits to issuing their rewards and penalties.
  • In other words, regulated stablecoins allow for an automated peer-to-peer payment system, but with an overlay of surveillance and censorship based on know-your-customer and anti-money-laundering “KYC AML” laws.
  • That doesn’t mean they can’t go up in price, and doesn’t mean they can’t offer functionality, but it makes them inherently different things than global immutable monetary assets, and so it’s useful to separate them into these two conceptual buckets.
  • I don’t mean to pitch my content here, but for context, members of my premium service already know my updated views on Ethereum, because I’ve been providing updates on Ethereum pretty much every month since that initial article.
  • Digital art, for example, doesn’t actually exist on the blockchain, but rather there is a pointer on the blockchain that links to where the image is stored elsewhere.

This problem affects protocols like Ethereum and Solana, but not really Bitcoin. Some folks on the big block side also forked their own blockchains out of Bitcoin throughout this war, creating large-block versions of Bitcoin, including Bitcoin XT, Bitcoin Classic, Bitcoin Unlimited, Bitcoin Cash, and Bitcoin Satoshi Vision. All of those have fallen significantly vs Bitcoin in terms of market capitalization and hash rate, as they have been rejected by the market.


Overall, I conceptualize bitcoins as monetary assets, and smart contract platform tokens as equity securities. Meanwhile, the Bitcoin network itself continues to update slowly on the base layer via soft forks, meaning it only makes backward-compatible upgrades, and only when there is overwhelming consensus to do so. And it continues to update quickly on second layers, on side chains, and with hardware and software providers in the surrounding ecosystem, that don’t affect the base layer. Some of those upgrades can make using the Bitcoin network faster, with more throughput, with more features, and/or with more privacy. It remains to be seen which platforms will be long-term stablecoin winners but it seems that they will trend towards rather centralized or federated networks to maintain low fees.

Not only is this a lot of money, but it would probably cause ETH’s value to drop. There’s very little incentive to destroy the value of a currency you have a majority stake in. At least 128 validators are required to attest to each shard block – this is known as a “committee.” https://xcritical.com/ So far, the most popular NFT application for retail investors may be Axie Infinity, which is indeed played by millions of people in the Philippines and in many other countries globally, and for which the in-game currency is accepted by some outside merchants.

Besides this larger amount of complexity, trust, and attack surfaces, I would argue that a main issue with proof-of-stake is that it can be prone to centralization. I could make it look like Twitter, but it wouldn’t really be Twitter, full of users and developers. In that prior article, I described Ethereum, explained areas where I was bullish, but also expressed my fundamental concerns with it.

Often the advantages of these proposals are described with insufficient acknowledgement of the trade-offs that they make compared to proof-of-work. But proof of work has issues, such as high energy consumption and prohibitively strict hardware requirements. It sees network users compete for the chance to update the network by updating it with all the new transactions that have taken place. Jamie Redman is the News Lead at Bitcoin.com News and a financial tech journalist living in Florida. He has a passion for Bitcoin, open-source code, and decentralized applications.

eth proof of stake

This is partly from culture; bitcoiners tend to be holders more-so than speculators, tend to not want to trade other types of tokens as frequently, etc. What we know as Bitcoin or “BTC” is the blockchain that has not undergone any formal hard forks. Bitcoin Cash “BCH”, Bitcoin Satoshi Vision “BSV”, and other blockchains are the ones that are hard forks, meaning they split and were not recognized as bitcoins by the existing node network, but instead became their own thing. Both of those other blockchains only have 1% or less of the Bitcoin network’s total processing power, and have been hit by malicious block re-orgs. In fact, if just 1% of bitcoin miners decide to do a 51% attack on either of those two hard forks, they can.

Tether Launches Usdt On Polkadots Kusama Network

More realistically, it may not have been that small block size increase that did it, but it could have set the stage for a series of much larger block size increases down the road. Proof-of-stake is a system where holders of the cryptocurrency lock up or “stake” their coins, and use them to vote on the valid blockchain, and get rewarded with more coins for successfully creating new blocks. Instead of committing electricity and processing power to create new blocks on the blockchain, they’re committing their stake of coins to do so. The more energy that Bitcoin’s network uses, the more secure that its latest transactions are against most types of attacks.

It’s also worth noting that smart contracts can exist as layers on top of Bitcoin as layer 2 solutions. In fact, they already do exist in that form, but those ones aren’t the dominant ones. The dominant ones are the versions that currently stand alone as layer one solutions, such as on Ethereum, Solana, and their various competitors. Your social media account is an item in a corporation’s database; it can be deleted or changed and you have no say in this. You have no way to audit what information they hold about you in their database.

The network is programmed to target average block times of ten minutes, meaning on average every ten minutes a block of thousands of transactions is added to the blockchain. I want to re-iterate that I try to be as objective as possible when analyzing blockchains. It’s no secret at this point that I like the Bitcoin protocol quite a bit, but that’s because it’s the one I am able to find the fewest faults with on a risk-adjusted basis. I analyze multiple asset classes, from stocks to bonds to commodities to digital assets, and often compare individual assets within those asset classes.

Millions of machines are using electricity to apply processing power to guess the answer to cryptographic puzzles left by the most recent block. This may seem like a waste of energy, but it’s what keeps the system decentralized. There is no central authority that decides what constitutes a valid block or a valid set of transactions; the longest blockchain is verifiable at any given time, and is recognized as truth by the rest of the network based on code. It was a constitutional crisis for the Bitcoin network in other words, and it passed the test. Plus, the Bitcoin network’s designers went to great lengths to make it easy and cheap to run a full node , which allows any user to audit the entire blockchain and reject blocks that don’t conform with the rules of the node network.

If people wanted to buy or sell bitcoins, they had to make individual arrangements. There would naturally be some organized meetups to make this easier, and the industry eventually formed centralized exchanges. Apart from difficulty bombs and things like that, there are powerful centralized forces in Ethereum that can dictate which hard fork is successful if a hard fork occurs.

We Are Checking Your Browser Cryptonews

When people living in countries with GDP per capita of $2k USD, $3k USD, or $4k USD are interested in bitcoin, they don’t pay hundred-dollar fees on Ethereum to mess around with NFTs or crypto trading or leveraging. They form groups to arrange peer-to-peer bitcoin buys/sales, or they explore the cheapest smart contract platforms. DeFi and NFTs have thus begun to spill out from Ethereum onto these other smart contract blockchains.

For this follow-up public article, I figured it’s time to delve into three related concepts that are more broad than just Ethereum. The first is about the trade-offs of proof-of-stake as a consensus mechanism in general, the second is the stablecoin centralization problem, and the third is the spectrum of centralization that various smart contract chains use to compete with each other on fees. Following the Altair upgrade on the Ethereum network, the protocol’s native cryptocurrency reached a new all-time price high. Altair is the next step for the Ethereum’s network’s proof-of-stake transition.

Bitcoin Follows Blue Chips South Amid Market Turmoil

The way altcoins market themselves, generally, is to highlight the shortcomings of Bitcoin as though it were old tech or “Boomer coin”, and then explain how they are better than Bitcoin. In fact, Ethereum experienced an unintended chain split in November 2020 due to an update bug, and another unintended chain split in August 2021 due to an update bug. Fundamentally, our goal for slashing is to slash 100% in cases where the node is maliciously trying to violate safety rules and 0% during routine operation.

eth proof of stake

The Liquid sidechain, which is a federated sidechain that runs on the Bitcoin network, hosts NFTs including art, gaming tokens, stablecoins, and utility tokens. El Salvador announced plans to issue $1 billion of sovereign bonds on the Liquid network. Rootstock runs on the Bitcoin network as well, to bring DeFi and similar types of applications to the ecosystem.

Eventually a longer chain wins, as a greater share of the network is finding it and building on top of it. It doesn’t require huge investments in hardware or energy, and if you don’t have enough ETH to stake, you can join staking pools.Proof-of-stake is still in its infancy, and less battle-tested, compared to proof-of-workStaking is more decentralized. It allows for increased participation, and more nodes doesn’t mean increased % returns, like with mining.Staking allows for secure sharding. Shard chains allow Ethereum to create multiple blocks at the same time, increasing transaction throughput. Sharding the network in a proof-of-work system would simply lower the power needed to compromise a portion of the network.

About Ethereum Org

She is an avid reader fascinated by classic English literature and enjoys painting and cooking. When her head is not buried behind a book, she writes about technology like cryptocurrency, blockchain, AI and more. Likewise, van der Wijden says that long-range attacks are solved by creating checkpoints that are distributed via the client software. And in general, he also states that PoS allows the community to punish attackers, something that can’t be said for PoW. Cryptonews.com has asked Ethereum developers and community members, as well as industry players outside of the Ethereum community what to expect, and what not to expect, from the transition. The threat of a 51% attack still exists in proof-of-stake, but it’s even more risky for the attackers.

Can Ethereums Proof

First of all, to run a Solana validator you need a computer with 12 CPU cores, 128 gigabytes of RAM, and 300Mbit/second upload speed (1 Gbit/second recommended). That setup, especially the upload speed part, basically means you need to be a datacenter operator to run a Solana validator. Unlike Bitcoin, you can’t use a laptop at home to validate the entire blockchain. The Ethereum 2.0 beacon chain was launched by network developers in December 2020. They are potentially rewarded for this by being given new tokens in return for their stake, if they are the user that is chosen to update the network. Ethereum cryptocurrency owners have now staked more than $14 billion worth of their tokens on the Ethereum 2.0 network, Etherscan data shows.

Other people propose that the outcome will instead look like operating systems, with a small number of persistent large players. Even if one player might have 30, 40, 50% or more of the market, it won’t have 90%+ according to this view. A subset of this argument further proposes that Bitcoin and smart contract platforms like Ethereum aren’t even really competing for the same market, and thus can be grouped separately with only moderate overlap. In a relatively non-hostile environment, smart contract platforms tend towards commoditization, competing based on price rather than quality.

Smart contract layer one platform developers propose that there are many more potential applications that benefit from blockchain technology as well, besides just money. That remains an open question among cryptocurrency traders and investors; what are the other applications? Quick payments (e.g. stablecoins) seem to be an answer, and potentially things like settlement of securities, gaming, etc.

They don’t realize that a lot of the liquidity and price-escalating transactions were actually just manipulation. Users mostly chose to sell the bitcoin cash coins in that instance, and so bitcoin cash coins lost tremendous value compared to bitcoins. In addition, the Bitcoin Cash network had far fewer miners, and thus was less secure against 51% attacks. The divide has only grown since then; if just 1-2% of miners from the Bitcoin network decide to attack the Bitcoin Cash network and overwhelm its hash power today, they can do so.

Even if it’s just meme-coins like Doge or Shiba Inu with briefly-lived spikes, they want to get you in on the action, especially near the top of the spike when enthusiasm is high. Their financial incentive is for their users to hold a large number of coins, and trade those coins frequently, and are happy to highlight whatever coins happen to be popular at the moment. When you dig into them, however, it turns out they are making tremendous trade-offs in one area to achieve additional capability elsewhere. They are sacrificing some degree of security, decentralization, auditability, and so forth, in order to achieve things like more features, more speed, or more throughput. And now the same thing is happening to Ethereum; newer smart contract chains offer greater efficiency in exchange for more centralization, and criticize Ethereum for not sacrificing more decentralization to scale faster.

Secondly, even those datacenter-level validators have to rely on archivers if they want to go back through the full history of the blockchain, because over time the amount of stored information becomes utterly massive. Bitcoin does not have this problem; after 13 years of operation eth proof of stake the entire Bitcoin blockchain can be stored on a common computer drive. In another 13 years, Bitcoin will still be storable on a common computer drive. Solana’s archival history after a decade or two would be an astounding amount of data that again makes it non-auditable to you.

You can think of attesting as saying “this block looks good to me.” Validators get rewards for proposing new blocks and for attesting to ones they’ve seen. Proof-of-stake is the underlying mechanism that activates validators upon receipt of enough stake. Validators are chosen at random to create blocks and are responsible for checking and confirming blocks they don’t create. For example, a user can lose a portion of their stake for things like going offline or their entire stake for deliberate collusion.